- Научни информации и анализи
- Здраве на животните и хуманно отношение към тях
Д-р МАДЛЕН ГЕОРГИЕВА: Благосъстояние на рибата, отглеждана в стопанства: Общи практики по време на транспортиране и при клане
Прочети материала ТУК
Welfare of farmed fish: Common practices during transport and at slaughter
The aim of this study was to gather information on current animal welfare practices in European aquaculture as regards the transport and slaughter of farmed fish, and to analyse the extent that fish welfare issues remain unresolved. The costs of adhering to good welfare practices, the economic situation, effects on competitiveness and other factors were taken into account. The reference period was 2009-2013.
The study focused on the five main farmed fish species to provide a general presentation of the current situation in European aquaculture: Atlantic salmon (cold-water marine); common carp and rainbow trout (freshwater), and; European sea bass and gilthead sea bream (Mediterranean marine).
The international standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on animal welfare during transport and stunning and killing of farmed fish for human consumption were used as a benchmark for assessment of welfare practices. EFSA recommendations on slaughter were also taken into account.
OIE standards for transport are largely achieved in the case-study countries for Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, European sea bass and gilthead sea bream. Some shortcomings were identified regarding the transport of common carp for slaughter.
The level of achievement of OIE standards at slaughter varies with the species. For Atlantic salmon, best practices are mostly achieved, with a few exceptions. For common carp and rainbow trout, the level of achievement varies between methods used. For European sea bass and gilthead sea bream, OIE standards are not achieved.
The economic analysis shows that differences in production cost are mainly caused by the structure of the industry, with particular benefits from economies of scale. Improving welfare practices is likely to have only a very small impact on the cost price. Other factors, such as feed, labour and operating costs are responsible for larger variations between enterprises and countries. The effect of implementing improved welfare practices is greatest on smaller farms.
On salmon and trout farms, investment in improving welfare leads to labour savings and may outweigh the investment cost on larger farms.
Carp is mainly consumed in the country of production and was generally not profitable without subsidies between 2009 and 2013 in typical EEA production systems. Small farms are likely to have most difficulty in investing to improve animal welfare and may experience a competitive disadvantage. However, the export position of the country is unlikely to be affected.
Production of sea bass and sea bream was generally not profitable between 2009 and 2013 without subsidies in the major EEA states. It should be noted that the economic performance of the sector is likely to have evolved since the reference period It may therefore be difficult for producers to make the necessary investment to improve welfare standards. Turkey has been increasing production and exports, but lower export value indicates that Turkey is unable to achieve the same market prices as the EEA States.